Martin Van Buren was born on this date in 1782. He grew up to be the first US President who was born a citizen of the United States (all his predecessors had been born before independence was declared). In addition to being the 8th President (he won the election of 1836, and served until 1841, losing the election of 1840 to William Henry Harrison), he was the 8th Vice President (serving Andrew Jackson's second term, 1833-37) and the 10th Secretary of State (1829-31).
Van Buren was the last sitting Vice President to be elected President until George H.W. Bush did it in 1988. He was the first President who wasn't of British descent, and he's the only President whose native language wasn't English (he grew up speaking Dutch at home). Van Buren is one of only two Presidents to have also been both Secretary of State and Vice President (the other was Thomas Jefferson).
After President Jackson had a falling out with his first Vice President, John C. Calhoun, the latter was dropped from the ticket for re-election, and Van Buren got the slot (Calhoun was elected to a seat in the Senate). After Jackson took the oath of office a second time, he considered resigning, in order to let Van Buren become President. Van Buren dissuaded him from this course of action, served out the term, and then succeeded Jackson.
Van Buren died on July 24, 1862.